Copying from the blackboardThis can be almost impossible for the child who has problems with eye/hand coordination or other difficulty with writing. It's best for the teacher to have this information on a hand-out. The most important goal is to have the child learn the work, not spend the entire time trying to copy off a blackboard.
Getting startedWhen the children come into class, I suggest teachers allow time for them to organize their notebooks, pencils, and papers. Base this time allowed on the child who takes the longest.
HomeworkTeachers generally send home whatever did not get done in class. This means some children bring home an awful lot of homework! They really shouldn't have more than an hour or two each night. Homework is supposed to reinforce what the child has learned during the day; it shouldn't be an ordeal each evening for the child and his parents.
Every child needs a break after school. Some may prefer to get the homework done first, but for young children especially, it's better for them to have some physical activity, to be able to play, and then do the homework after dinner or later in the evening.
Consider which parent is better suited to work with the child...it isn't always Mom.
Allow the child to work in the environment that best suits him. For one youngster, this may be a quiet place in his bedroom. For another it could be at the kitchen table. Some work best with the radio on while others don't. Also, remember how important it is for the chair and desk/table to be the right "fit." (See the July/August Pure Facts.) The child's feet should be firmly "planted" on the floor when he sits down, and this can be as simple as putting a book under his feet.
He may need timed breaks. For the child who has started the Feingold Program and is having success, you can show him that he can lengthen his time of focus. Use a timer to determine how long he will try to focus on his work. You might start by having work periods that last only ten minutes, with breaks in between. Then, the following week, lengthen the time by a few minutes, perhaps it can be 12 minutes instead of 10. This will teach the child to focus for longer and longer periods, and he will eventually be able to work for as long as he is comfortable without the need for a timer or outside intervention. He will be able to get up, take a break, and come back to the work, to set his own pace.
We adults don't usually work on a project for hours at a time. We take breaks, leave it for awhile, and come back to our project.
When homework assignments are given, it's helpful if the teacher provides a list of books or other materials to complete the assignment. How many kids have come home with a homework assignment, but without the book needed to do it? Or, they come home with the book, but they don't know which page they're supposed to do. The teacher can spell it out on the blackboard.
Teachers can help students plan their time on a project by providing
an outline which blocks out periods of time and charts how far along
the child should be on the project, to help him to stay on target.
HndwritingOne of the specific learning disabilities teachers often complain about is the child's handwriting. Handwriting involves fine motor skills. The way teachers generally try to get children to improve their handwriting is to have the child practice it over and over again. But there's a much more effective way to help these children.
Start by using the child's gross motor skills, and gradually work down to the fine motor control. I recommend a large easel pad. You want the child to understand what the letters look like and how you make them. [Pat demonstrated using gross motor skills to make a single very large letter on the pad.] I moved my whole body; I didn't move just my fingers or my wrist, but I learned how to make a letter with a fluid motion. You don't have to use a large easel pad; instead, give the child a piece of chalk and let him write on the sidewalk.
Once the child knows how to make a letter on a big page like this, you then move on to the next step. Again, use these very large sheets of paper, but now draw red and blue lines -- solid and dotted, just like the page in his writing workbook at school. When the child is able to write the letters using these enlarged pages, gradually use smaller pages and closer lines.
As the size of the letter gets smaller, the child will go from using most of his body to make the letter, then perhaps use his whole arm. So, you continue to have the fluid movement, but he still is not using the fine muscles. There's a smaller pad than this, which is available from the FAUS Resource Catalog. The lines are still big, but by this time the child has worked down to using his wrist. As he improves the child can use progressively smaller pages. We use the child's gross muscles to learn the motion and shape of the letter, and then as the motor control improves he can gradually come down to the size of letter being taught. Unfortunately, this progressive help is not offered in most schools.
There are other useful tools to help with a child's handwriting. Have
you seen the child who holds the pencil or pen right down at the point,
or up at the end? [Pat demonstrated a pen shaped so that the finger
can't slide to the tip or go up too high.] These are specifically
made for someone who has a problem with gripping the pencil/pen or
a fine motor problem.
Cursive vs. printingFor the child who has problems writing, it's sometimes easier to learn cursive than to learn to print. The rhythm of the writing seems easier for this child to handle than the stop and start of printing. If you feel this is important for the school to follow, have it written into the IEP.
Youngsters who have difficulty writing should be allowed to type reports, and for some children, giving an oral report is better yet.
The child who has gross motor problems should receive occupational
therapy (OT) intervention. Children who are clumsy and lacking in
balance need the OT.
Language and speech delayIf a child has delays in language and speech it may manifest itself as ADD because it's very frustrating not to be able to respond well.
One form of language problems in children and adults is called aphasia. This
is where the child understands what you're saying and understands
what his response is supposed to be, but has difficulty in verbalizing. We
see this in people who have had strokes. Such a person is angry because
they can't tell you what they want to say. If you have a child with
this problem seek out a good speech therapist who can evaluate the
Hearing and quality of hearingSome children have very hypersensitive hearing. I used to take my son to church. He was fine until the organ music began, then he would scream, and I would have to leave. He acted like the noise was painful. This is the same child who told the fluorescent lights to stop buzzing; nobody else could hear them. He told the radiators to be quiet, because he heard these things. A person who is distracted by this super-sensitivity to noise will tune out the world around him when he is trying to focus.
There is interesting research being conducted that suggests you can have a different rate of hearing in each ear. So, if one ear is hearing sooner than the other, the person must decode what they hear before they can respond to it. That puts them out of sync with the rest of the world.
When giving directions, also read all directions twice to be sure the children have heard them. Have
the students repeat to you what the direction was.
Learning to readMany of these children need phonics. They need the tools to decipher language, and phonics is the way to do it. Our kids aren't patient enough to learn "whole word recognition," and they don't want to memorize whole words. But if you give them the tools to decipher the language they'll do very well, so phonics is a better way to teach reading and language to these children.
Certain distractionsWe often hear about children who are distracted by things like the noise of a page turning, but some children who are not bothered by background noise of this type will have difficulty in the classroom if there is a discussion group going on while the child is trying to focus on something else. This child will be extremely distracted, even if the group is on the other side of the classroom; so I tell teachers who have kids with ADD in their class to try not to divide the children up into groups, but to have them work independently.
Note takingBy the time a child reaches seventh and eighth grade he will need to learn to take notes. This involves many skills. The child needs to:
Visual trackingFollowing the letters across the page is a problem for many children, but it is one many teachers don't pick up on. Effective reading involves holding your head relatively still and moving your eyes to follow the words across the page.
When a child reads, if you see him lay his head on the desk or cock his head to one side, he's probably only tracking with one eye. This means he is moving his head in order to focus on the words, rather than holding his head still and moving only his eyes.
I know personally how difficult it is to track on a page if you have a visual problem. I suffered from this all through school and nobody knew it. Only after I was out of school and went to a specialist did I gain a better understanding of what I was dealing with visually. I could read, and could read the eye chart across the room, but I had trouble tracking across the page. If I tried to track across the page I would lose a word, and I'd have to go back and find the word I lost because the sentence didn't make sense. That still happens to me today, but now I understand what's going on.
If you have a child who's trying to read something and has to go back two or three times a line to make sense of what he is reading, he's going to read three times slower than his classmates. And watch the way the child holds his head for clues that he's only tracking with one eye.
Teach the child to sit up straight, to use his finger to track on
the page or to use a T square. This rests against the side of the
book and the ruler is parallel to the line of text. The child can
use the T square to help keep his eyes right on the line. If you
use interventions like these, however, be sure to ask the child which works
best for him or her; you don't want to make things harder.