The Feingold Diet Program for ADHD

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Diet & Stomachaches,
GI Problems, Celiac Disease


Research Menu Page ||| Updated 5/13/10

Listed in date order, with the newest first:

Pelsser 2010      Effects of food on physical and sleep complaints in children with ADHD: a randomised controlled pilot study.
Kristjansson 2007   Mucosal reactivity to cow's milk protein in coeliac disease.
Inomata 2006   Multiple chemical sensitivities following intolerance to azo dye in sweets in a 5-year-old girl.
Niederhofer 2006A preliminary investigation of ADHD symptoms in persons with celiac disease.
Zelnik 2004    Range of Neurologic Disorders in Patients With Celiac Disease.
FDA 2003Reports of blue discoloration and death in patients receiving enteral feedings tinted with the dye, FD&C Blue No. 1.
Sasaki 2002The comet assay with 8 mouse organs: results with 39 currently used food additives.
Granville 2001Blue colon at autopsy.
Boutilier 2000Green colon: an unusual appearance at autopsy.
Corvaglia 1999   Depression in adult untreated celiac subjects: Diagnosis by the pediatrician.
Faulkner Hogg 1999   Dietary analysis in symptomatic patients with coeliac disease on a gluten-free diet: the role of trace amounts of gluten and non-gluten food intolerances.
Niec 1998(Review) Are adverse food reactions linked to irritable bowel syndrome?
Ignys 1995Food allergy in pathogenesis of chronic abdominal pain in children
Antico 1989Irritable colon syndrome in intolerance to food additives.
Egger 1989Oligoantigenic diet treatment of children with epilepsy and migraine.
Van Bever 1989Food and food additives in severe atopic dermatitis.
Egger 1985Controlled Trial of Oligoantigenic Treatment in the Hyperkinetic Syndrome.
Jakobsson 1985Unusual presentation of adverse reactions to cow's milk proteins.
Petitpierre 1985Irritable bowel syndrome and hypersensitivity to food.
Egger 1983Is migraine food allergy? A double-blind controlled trial of oligoantigenic diet treatment.
More Information on GI Problems, antifungal medication use, etc.





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  1. Irritable colon syndrome in intolerance to food additives., Antico A, Soana R, Clivio L, Baioni R., Minerva Dietol Gastroenterol 1989 Oct-Dec;35(4):219-24
    " . . . Following our observation, we can draw the conclusion that food additives intolerance may be a major factor in the pathogenesis of IBS. "
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  2. Green colon: an unusual appearance at autopsy. Boutilier RG, Murray SK, Walley VM. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2000 Sep;124(9):1397-8.
    No abstract

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  3. Depression in adult untreated celiac subjects: diagnosis by the pediatrician, Corvaglia L, Catamo R, Pepe G, Lazzari R, Corvaglia E., American Journal of Gastroenteroly. 1999 Mar;94(3):839-43.
    " Untreated celiac disease can lead to serious behavioral disorders. We describe three adult patients with undiagnosed or untreated celiac disease without particular intestinal signs, causing persistent depressive symptoms in three of the parents of our pediatric patients. . . .In all three patients, the depressive symptoms improved quickly with a gluten-free diet. In conclusion, celiac disease should be taken into consideration in the presence of behavioral and depressive disorders, particularly if they are not responsive to the usual antidepressive therapy. "

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  4. Is migraine food allergy? A double-blind controlled trial of oligoantigenic diet treatment., Egger J et al., Lancet 1983 Oct 15;2(8355):865-9
    "93% of 88 children with severe frequent migraine recovered on oligoantigenic diets; ... the role of the foods provoking migraine was established by a double-blind controlled trial in 40 of the children. ... Associated symptoms which improved in addition to headache included abdominal pain, behaviour disorder, fits, asthma, and eczema. In most of the patients in whom migraine was provoked by non-specific factors, such as blows to the head, exercise, and flashing lights, this provocation no longer occurred while they were on the diet."
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  5. Controlled Trial of Oligoantigenic Treatment in the Hyperkinetic Syndrome, J.Egger, P.J.Graham, J.F.Soothill, C.M.Carter, D.Gumley, The Lancet, March 9, 1985
    62 of 76 selected overactive children (81.6%) improved; other symptoms such as headaches, abdominal pain, and fits, also improved.
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  6. Oligoantigenic diet treatment of children with epilepsy and migraine, Egger J, Carter CM, Soothill JF, Wilson J, Journal of Pediatrics 1989 Jan;114(1):51-8
    Of 45 children with epilepsy and recurrent headaches, abdominal symptoms, or hyperkinetic behavior, 36 [80%] improved on an oligoantigenic diet; 25 [55%] ceased to have seizures and 11 had fewer seizures during diet therapy. "Headaches, abdominal pains, and hyperkinetic behavior ceased in all those whose seizures ceased, and in some of those whose seizures did not cease." ..."Of 24 children with generalized epilepsy, 18 [75%] recovered or improved (including 4 of 7 with myoclonic seizures and all with petit mal), as did 18 of 21 [85%] children with partial epilepsy. In double-blind, placebo-controlled provocation studies, symptoms recurred in 15 of 16 children, including seizures in eight; none recurred when placebo was given. Eighteen other children, who had epilepsy alone, were similarly treated with an oligoantigenic diet; none improved."
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  7. Dietary analysis in symptomatic patients with coeliac disease on a gluten-free diet: the role of trace amounts of gluten and non-gluten food intolerances. Faulkner-Hogg KB, Selby WS, Loblay RH, Scand J Gastroenterol 1999 Aug;34(8):784-9
    " . . . Thirty-nine adult members of The Coeliac Society of New South Wales, all of whom had persistent gastrointestinal symptoms despite adhering to a GFD, were evaluated. . . All subjects were required to follow a NDG-GFD [no detectable gluten diet] during the study. . . . Of 22 patients who switched to a NDG-GFD [from an almost-gluten-free diet] symptoms resolved in 5 (23%) and were reduced in 10 others (45%). . . . Symptomatic improvement was experienced in 24 (77%). . . Diarrhoea was the most commonly provoked symptom, followed by headache, nausea, and flatulence. Symptoms were especially provoked by amine, salicylate and soy.. . "
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  8. FDA Public Health Advisory: Reports of blue discoloration and death in patients receiving enteral feedings tinted with the dye, FD&C Blue No. 1    (If link inactive, see here.)
    "Dear Health Care Professional:
    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) would like you to be aware of several reports of toxicity, including death, temporally associated with the use of FD&C Blue No. 1 (Blue 1) in enteral feeding solutions. . . in vitro evidence that Blue 1 can be a mitochondrial toxin lends plausibility to the idea ... "

    See full report by clicking on the title above.

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  9. Blue colon at autopsy. Granville LA, Finch C., Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2001 May;125(5):599.
    Comment on Boutilier 2000, Green colon: an unusual appearance at autopsy.

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  10. Food allergy in pathogenesis of chronic abdominal pain in children, Ignys I et al., Pediatria Polska 1995 Apr;70(4):307-11
    "The aim of the study was to analyse the cause-and-effect relationship between chronic abdominal pain in children, endoscopic and histopatological picture, and food allergy, as well as to evaluate the applied elimination diet and/or antiallergic treatment on the improvement of both the clinical status and endoscopic picture. In 71 children gastrofiberoscopic examinations, food skin tests, and specific and total IgE allergen serum tests were performed. In the majority of examined children one could observe an improvement of clinical status and of the endoscopic-histopatological picture of the stomach mucous membrane after application an elimination diet and/or treatment with sodium cromoglycate.
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  11. Multiple chemical sensitivities following intolerance to azo dye in sweets in a 5-year-old girl. Inomata N, Osuna H, Fujita H, Ogawa T, Ikezawa Z., Allergology International 2006 Jun;55(2):203-5.
    " ... We present a 5-year-old girl who suffered from recurrent reactions accompanied by urticaria, angioedema, headaches, dyspnea, loss of consciousness, and abdominal pain ... Her diet diary revealed that symptoms occurred after ingestion of colorful sweets such as candies and jellybeans. Open challenge tests with food additives and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were performed after elimination of these items. ... Consequently, intolerance to azo dyes and NSAIDs such as aspirin was diagnosed.

    However, she appeared to react to multiple chemical odors such as those of cigarette smoke, disinfectant, detergent, cleaning compounds, perfume, and hairdressing, all while avoiding additives and NSAIDs. On the basis of her history and the neuro-ophthalmological abnormalities, a diagnosis of severe MCS was made and she was prescribed multiple vitamins and glutathione. CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest that in pediatric MCS, food and drug additives containing azo dyes might play important roles as elicitors. "

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  12. Unusual presentation of adverse reactions to cow's milk proteins. , Jakobsson I., Klinische Padiatrie 1985 Jul-Aug;197(4):360-2
    " Allergy to cow's milk most commonly give symptoms from the gastrointestinal tract, the skin or the respiratory tract. Here two patients are described, with symptoms not so common. One with cerebral symptoms and the other with enuresis. Infantile colic occurs more or less in about 20% of all infants. We have found that in about 1/3 of breastfed infants with infantile colic the symptoms disappeared when the mothers had a cow's milk free diet. We have also managed to analyse the content of the cow's milk protein beta-lactoglobulin in the human milk."
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  13. Mucosal reactivity to cow's milk protein in coeliac disease. KristjŠnsson G, Venge P, Hšllgren R., Clinical & Experimental Immunology. 2007 Mar;147(3):449-55.
    " Patients with coeliac disease (CD) on a gluten-free diet may still have gastrointestinal symptoms. On clinical grounds cow's milk (CM) protein sensitivity may be suspected. Here, using rectal protein challenge, we investigated the local inflammatory reaction to gluten and CM protein in adult patients with CD in remission. Rectal challenges with wheat gluten and dried CM powder were performed in 20 patients with CD and 15 healthy controls. ... In 18 of 20 patients gluten challenge induced neutrophil activation defined as increased MPO release and increased NO synthesis. Ten of these 20 patients showed a similarly strong inflammatory reaction to CM challenge. ... A mucosal inflammatory response similar to that elicited by gluten was produced by CM protein in about 50% of the patients with coeliac disease. Casein, in particular, seems to be involved in this reaction."
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  14. Are adverse food reactions linked to irritable bowel syndrome? Niec AM, Frankum B, Talley NJ, Am J Gastroenterol 1998 Nov;93(11):2184-90
    " . . . Of the seven studies included, the positive response to an elimination diet ranged from 15% to 71%; double-blind placebo-controlled challenges identified problem foods in 6% to 58% of cases. Milk, wheat, and eggs were most frequently identified to cause symptom exacerbation; of the foods identified the most common trait was a high salicylate content. Foods high in amines were also identified. Studies of diarrhea-predominant IBS identified a higher percentage of adverse food reactions. . . . Carefully designed controlled clinical trials are now needed to specifically test the potential role of adverse food reactions in diarrhea-predominant IBS."
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  15. A preliminary investigation of ADHD symptoms in persons with celiac disease., Niederhofer H, Pittschieler K., Journal of Attention Disorders, 2006 Nov;10(2):200-4.
    "Several studies report a possible association of celiac disease (CD) with psychiatric and psychological disturbances, such as ADHD. METHOD: The authors assess 132 participants from 3 to 57 years of age ... affected by CD for the possibility of an associated ADHD-like symptomatology ... before their gluten-free diet was started and 6 months later. RESULTS: The overall score improves significantly as well as most of the ADHD-like symptomatology ... CONCLUSION: The data indicate that ADHD-like symptomatology is markedly overrepresented among untreated CD patients and that a gluten-free diet may improve symptoms significantly within a short period of time. "

    Notes:

    1. A gluten-free diet would eliminate many processed foods, thereby automatically reducing the ingestion of additives.
    2. Some people with ADHD, even on the Feingold Program, do better when they eliminate gluten and/or casein. Since Celiac Disease can also be present without frank symptoms of GI disturbance, this connection is very interesting.
    3. See full text of study - (get password)
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  16. Effects of food on physical and sleep complaints in children with ADHD: a randomised controlled pilot study., Pelsser LM, Frankena K, Buitelaar JK, Rommelse NN. European Journal of Pediatrics, 2010 Apr 17. [Epub ahead of print]
    "Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a common behavioural disorder in children, may be associated with comorbid physical and sleep complaints. Dietary intervention studies have shown convincing evidence of efficacy in reducing ADHD symptoms in children. In this pilot study, we investigated the effects of an elimination diet on physical and sleep complaints in children with ADHD. A group of 27 children . . . were assigned randomly to either a diet group (15/27) or a control group (12/27).

    The diet group followed a 5-week elimination diet; the control group adhered to their normal diet. Parents of both groups had to keep an extended diary and had to monitor the behaviour and the physical and sleep complaints of their child conscientiously. . . The number of physical and sleep complaints was significantly decreased in the diet group compared to the control group . . . Specific complaints that were significantly reduced were in three domains: headaches or bellyaches, unusual thirst or unusual perspiration, and sleep complaints. . . An elimination diet may be an effective instrument to reduce physical complaints in children with ADHD, but more research is needed to determine the effects of food on (functional) somatic symptoms in children with and without ADHD."

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  17. Irritable bowel syndrome and hypersensitivity to food. Petitpierre M, Gumowski P, Girard JP, Ann Allergy 1985 Jun;54(6):538-40
    " Food hypersensitivity as a cause of irritable bowel syndrome was investigated by means of exclusion diet and blind provocation... In 14 patients one or several food or additives were shown to induce the typical symptoms of IBS... Among other potential pathogenetic mechanisms, the presence in the intestinal tract of yeast (Candida albicans, Geotrichum candidum) seems to be of major importance. Yeast apparently favor the development of allergic as well as pseudo-allergic reactions, at least in some patients.... Dramatic clinical improvements can result from the introduction of an adequate exclusion diet."
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  18. Risk assessment of combined photogenotoxic effects of sunlight and food additives. Salih FM, Sci Total Environ. 2005 Jun 24
    " The presence of flavored colorants (peach and raspberry), flavors (caramel, citric acid and vanilla) and food preservatives (sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate, sodium benzoate, benzoic acid, potassium sorbate and sodium chloride) in Escherichia coli suspension during exposure to sunlight did not change the extent of cell survival. No effect . . . in the dark. However, when the relevant additive was present in cell suspension during sunlight exposure the number of induced mutations was increased to varying extents over that seen with sunlight alone. . . . The impact of this investigation reflects the significance of combination of sunlight and chemical food additives as potential risk, which requires special attention and necessitates further investigations to evaluate the risk. "

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  19. Food and food additives in severe atopic dermatitis. Van Bever HP, Docx M, Stevens WJ, Allergy 1989 Nov;44(8):588-94
    "In this study the role of food additives, tyramine and acetylsalicylic acid, was investigated by double-blind placebo-controlled challenges (DBPCC) in 25 children with severe atopic dermatitis (AD). All children challenged with foods (n = 24), except one, showed one or more positive reactions to the DBPCC with foods. Positive reactions presented as different combinations of flares of skin symptoms, intestinal symptoms and respiratory symptoms... Six children underwent DBPCC with food additives, tyramine and acetylsalicylic acid. All were found to demonstrate positive skin and/or intestinal reactions to at least one of the food additives. Two children reacted to tartrazine, three to sodium benzoate, two to sodium glutamate, two to sodium metabisulfite, four to acetylsalicylic acid and one to tyramine. It is concluded that some foods, food additives, tyramine and acetylsalicylic acid, can cause positive DBPCC in children with severe AD."
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  20. Range of neurologic disorders in patients with celiac disease. Zelnik N, Pacht A, Obeid R, Lerner A., Pediatrics. 2004 Jun;113(6):1672-6.
    " Patients with CD were more prone to develop neurologic disorders (51.4%) in comparison with control subjects (19.9%). These disorders include hypotonia, developmental delay, learning disorders and ADHD, headache, and cerebellar ataxia. Epileptic disorders were only marginally more common in CD. "

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