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Cortese S, Lecendreux M, Bernardina BD, Mouren MC, Sbarbati A, Konofal E., Med Hypotheses. 2008;70(6):1128-32. Epub 2007 Dec 27.
- The effect of pyridoxine hydrochloride on blood serotonin and pyridoxal phosphate contents in hyperactive children. Bhagavan HN, Coleman M, Coursin DB, Pediatrics 1975 Mar;55(3):437-41"... A significant decrease in serotonin content was found in blood samples from hyperactive patients as compared with controls. There were no differences in PLP content of blood between the two groups ... Oral doses of pyridoxine [Vitamin B6] resulted in an appreciable increase in the serotonin content and a very large increase in the PLP [pyridoxal phosphate] content of blood in these hyperactive patients.
- A preliminary study of the effect of pyridoxine administration in a subgroup of hyperkinetic children: a double-blind crossover comparison with methylphenidate. Coleman M, et al., Biol Psychiatry 1979 Oct;14(5):741-51"... both pyridoxine and methylphenidate were more effective than placebo in suppressing the symptoms of hyperkinesis. Pyridoxine elevated whole-blood serotonin levels, methylphenidate did not. Clinical and laboratory evidence indicated that the pyridoxine effects persisted after the 3-week period when the vitamin had been given in this experimental design.
- A double blind study of vitamin B6 in Down's syndrome infants. Part 1--Clinical and biochemical results. Coleman M, Sobel S, Bhagavan HN, Coursin D, Marquardt A, Guay M, Hunt C, J Ment Defic Res 1985 Sep;29 ( Pt 3):233-40"... Ten patients received the vitamin and nine the placebo. ... A study of side effects conducted on a larger open population found vitamin B6 to be relatively safe when administered over long periods of time with photosensitive blisters as the major complication."
- Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, Tourette’s syndrome, and restless legs syndrome: The iron hypothesis" Preliminary but increasing evidence suggests that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Tourette’s syndrome (TS), and restless legs syndrome (RLS) may be comorbid. . . . Iron deficiency might lead to ADHD, RLS and TS symptoms via its impact on the metabolism of dopamine and other catecholamines, which have been involved into the pathophysiology of ADHD, TS, and RLS. We speculate that the catecholaminergic systems are differently impacted in each of the three disorders, contributing to a different specific phenotypic expression of iron deficiency. MRI studies assessing brain iron levels in ADHD, TS, and childhood RLS, as well as genetic studies on the specific molecular pathways involved in iron deficiency, are greatly needed to confirm the iron hypothesis underlying ADHD, TS, and RLS. ... "
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Enhancement of attention processing by Kantroll in healthy humans: a pilot study. DeFrance JF et al., Clin Electroencephalogr 1997 Apr;28(2):68-75"This is the first report in humans of the effects of daily ingestion of a specific amino acid mixture, Kantroll, [a supplement containing amino acids, vitamins, and minerals] on cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with performance. ... The enhancement of neurophysiologic function observed in this study on normal controls is consistent with the facilitation of recovery of individuals with RDS (i.e., substance use disorder, ADHD, carbohydrate bingeing) following the ingestion of the amino acid supplement, Kantroll..." Beneficial effects of thiamine on recognition memory and P300 in abstinent cocaine-dependent patients. Easton CJ, Bauer LO, Psychiatry Res 1997 May 30;70(3):165-74"... Thiamine was found to significantly improve recognition accuracy and P300 amplitude, at the midline parietal (Pz) electrode. The improvement was most reliable under conditions of increased memory load. These preliminary findings justify a further examination of the relation between thiamine's hypothesized effects on central nervous system cholinergic function, and the direct and indirect effects of cocaine abuse." A double blind study of vitamin B6 in Down's syndrome infants. Part 2--Cortical auditory evoked potentials. Frager J, Barnet A, Weiss I, Coleman M, J Ment Defic Res 1985 Sep;29 ( Pt 3):241-6"Cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) were recorded at 1 and at 3 years of age in 19 children with Down's syndrome participating in a double blind trial of vitamin B6 and placebo begun in early infancy and continued for 3 years. ... At 3 years of age...comparison of the B6-treated group and the placebo group revealed significant differences in both amplitudes and latencies of CAEP components. ..." Influence of a Maharishi Ayur-vedic herbal preparation on age-related visual discrimination. Gelderloos P, Ahlstrom HH, Orme-Johnson DW, Robinson DK, Wallace RK, Glaser JL, Int J Psychosom 1990;37(1-4):25-9"...A double-blind study was conducted to test the effect of an Ayurvedic herbal preparation, Maharishi Amrit Kalash (MAK), on an age-related alertness task. ... The MAK group improved significantly more in their performance of this task after three and six weeks of treatment relative to the placebo group. ... it is concluded that MAK may enhance attentional capacity or alertness, and thus reverse some of the detrimental cognitive effects of aging." Outcome-based comparison of Ritalin versus food-supplement treated children with AD/HD. Harding KL, Judah RD, Gant C. Altern Med Rev. 2003 Aug; 8(3): 319-30." Twenty children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) were treated with either Ritalin (10 children) or dietary supplements (10 children) . . . Subjects in both groups showed significant gains . . . . . .Numerous studies suggest that biochemical heterogeneous etiologies for AD/HD cluster around at least eight risk factors: food and additive allergies, heavy metal toxicity and other environmental toxins, low-protein/high-carbohydrate diets, mineral imbalances, essential fatty acid and phospholipid deficiencies, amino acid deficiencies, thyroid disorders, and B-vitamin deficiencies. . . . These findings support the effectiveness of food supplement treatment in improving attention and self-control in children with AD/HD and suggest food supplement treatment of AD/HD may be of equal efficacy to Ritalin treatment."
The effect of thiamin tetrahydrofurfuryl disulfide on behavior of juvenile DBA/2J mice. Hills JI, Golub MS, Bettendorff L, Keen CL., Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2011 Jul 24. [Epub ahead of print]Due to genetic defects or illness some individuals require higher amounts of thiamin than are typically provided by the diet. . . High intakes of thiamin have been reported as beneficial in children with autism and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The current study examined the effect of thiamin tetrahydrofurfuryl disulfide (TTFD), a lipophilic precursor, on behavior in the juvenile male DBA/2J mouse. . . . Results indicate lower activity and altered social interaction at both treatment levels and decreased acoustic startle at the 100mg/kg level. . . TTFD treatment resulted in increased whole brain thiamin concentrations. These results support the concept that lipophilic thiamin precursors provided during early development can affect a number of behavioral parameters.
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Zinc, Ferritin, Magnesium and Copper in a group of Egyptian Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Mahmoud MM, El-Mazary AA, Maher RM, Saber MM., Italian Journal of Pediatrics. 2011 Dec 29;37:60."CONCLUSIONS: Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder had lower levels of zinc, ferritin and magnesium than healthy children but had normal copper levels."
Effect of vitamin and amino acid supplements on human performance during heavy mental and physical work. Ushakov AS et al, Aviat Space Environ Med 1978 Oct;49(10):1184-7This paper presents data describing the effects of vitamin and amino acid supplements on the health state and performance of men doing heavy mental and physical work. Experiments on seven test volunteers showed that a 20-d intake of a mixture of vitamins, amino acids, and mineral substances optimized the health state and increased the performance of test subjects doing heavy work.