The Feingold Diet Program for ADHD

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Diet & Urinary Problems
and Bedwetting (Enuresis)


Research Menu Page ||| Last update 11/18/2013

Listed in reverse date order:

Ghanizadeh 2010     Comorbidity of Enuresis in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.
Zoller 2001Ektopic ureter - a not considered cause of persisting enuresis in girls.
Ornitz 1999Prepulse inhibition of startle and the neurobiology of primary nocturnal enuresis.
Pelikan 1999The role of allergy in interstitial cystitis.
Starobrat 1998    The effect of deficiency of selected bioelements on hyperactivity in children with certain specified mental disorders.
Robson 1997Enuresis in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Miller 1993Concomitant nonpharmacologic therapy in the treatment of primary nocturnal enuresis.
Egger 1992Effect of diet treatment on enuresis in children with migraine or hyperkinetic behavior.
Oei 1989Enuresis and encopresis as a reaction to food.
Laurent 1987Is Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome Food Allergy?
Jakobsson 1985Unusual presentation of adverse reactions to cow's milk proteins.
Salzman 1976Allergy testing, psychological assessment and dietary treatment of the hyperactive child syndrome.



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  1. Effect of diet treatment on enuresis in children with migraine or hyperkinetic behavior, Egger J, Carter CH, Soothill JF, Wilson J, Clinical Pediatrics (Phila) 1992 May;31(5):302-7
    "Twenty-one children with migraine and/or hyperkinetic behavior disorder which was successfully treated with an oligoantigenic (few-foods) diet also suffered from nocturnal and/or diurnal enuresis. [daytime or nighttime bed wetting] On diet, the enuresis stopped in 12 of these children and improved in an additional four. [76%] ... Enuresis in food-induced migraine and/or behavior disorder seems to respond, in some patients, to avoidance of provoking foods."
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    1. Comorbidity of Enuresis in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Ghanizadeh A, Journal of Attention Disorders 2010 Mar;13(5):464-7. Epub 2009 Apr 20.
      "OBJECTIVE: To compare parental psychopathology and psychiatric disorders in ADHD children with and those without enuresis. ... RESULTS: Only ODD comorbidity was the predictor of enuresis. ... The only parental psychiatric disorder that was related to the groups was father's major depressive disorder.

      CONCLUSION: Enuresis in ADHD has a relationship with ODD. Physicians who treat patients with ADHD and enuresis should routinely inquire about the presence of major depression in the fathers."

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    2. Unusual presentation of adverse reactions to cow's milk proteins. , Jakobsson I., Klinische Padiatrie 1985 Jul-Aug;197(4):360-2
      " Allergy to cow's milk most commonly give symptoms from the gastrointestinal tract, the skin or the respiratory tract. Here two patients are described, with symptoms not so common. One with cerebral symptoms and the other with enuresis. Infantile colic occurs more or less in about 20% of all infants. We have found that in about 1/3 of breastfed infants with infantile colic the symptoms disappeared when the mothers had a cow's milk free diet. We have also managed to analyse the content of the cow's milk protein beta-lactoglobulin in the human milk."
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    3. Is adult idiopathic nephrotic syndrome food allergy? Value of oligoantigenic diets, Laurent J, Rostoker G, Robeva R, Bruneau C, Lagrue G, Nephron 1987;47(1):7-11
      To evaluate the prevalence of food hypersensitivity in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome [a kidney disease] (INS), an oligoantigenic diet was given for 10 days to 13 patients with INS who had not steadily responded to corticosteroids; ... At the end of the oligoantigenic diet, proteinuria was significantly reduced in the 13 patients as compared to the initial level. It decreased by more than 50% in 9 patients and disappeared completely in 5. It seems that an oligoantigenic diet is helpful in cases of INS that do not respond to corticosteroids. This argues for a role of food hypersensitivity in this disease and suggests that avoidance of specific foods on the longer term may be of benefit. This diet must be tried in INS before the initiation of immunosuppressive therapy.
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    4. Concomitant nonpharmacologic therapy in the treatment of primary nocturnal enuresis.
      Miller K, Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1993 Jul;Spec No:32-7
      " Some 5 to 7 million children in the United States suffer from primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE). . . Several nonpharmacologic treatment modalities also are available, including bladder-stretching exercises, behavioral therapy, hypnotherapy, and elimination diets. . . .Although none of the methods offers effective resolution of nighttime incontinence in all children, combining methods increases the probability of treatment success and encourages compliance without risk to the child. . . ."
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    5. Enuresis and encopresis as a reaction to food, Oei HD, Pelikan-Filipek M, Pelikan Z, van Vliet AC, Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1989 Aug 5;133(31):1555-7 [in Dutch]
      ...."10-year old girl, suffering from diurnal and nocturnal enuresis [wetting] and encopresis [soiling] since she was a baby, had been repeatedly examined and treated by various medical specialists and a homeopathic doctor without any significant improvement ... Finally her problem was solved after an allergological examination ... She was put on a complete elimination diet, combined with oral disodium cromoglycate, and has been free of all complaints since 1 1/2 years. "
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    6. Prepulse inhibition of startle and the neurobiology of primary nocturnal enuresis, Ornitz EM et al., Biological Psychiatry 1999 Jun 1;45(11):1455-66
      "...This study evaluates the association of this PPI [prepulse inhibition] deficit in PNE [primary nocturnal enuresis, or bed wetting] with comorbidity with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and with intelligence. METHODS: Prepulse modulation of startle was studied in 96 boys with PNE and 105 nonenuretic boys using intervals of 60, 120, and 4000 msec between the onset of a 75-dB 1000-Hz tone and a 104-dB noise burst. ... Those enuretic boys who also were ADHD or had higher performance IQs ... showed the greatest PPI deficit. CONCLUSIONS: A common deficiency of inhibitory signal processing in the brain stem may underlie both deficient PPI and the inability to inhibit micturition [start of urination] in PNE."

      As we have often seen from parent reports, when diet helps a child with ADHD who also wets the bed, it helps the bed wetting, too!

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    7. The role of allergy in interstitial cystitis, Pelikan Z, van Oers JA, Levens WJ, Fouchier SM, Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde 1999 Jun 19;143(25):1289-92
      "In two women, aged 47 and 58 years, who suffered from longstanding urinary bladder complaints, various urologic treatments ... had had only a partial therapeutic effect. They also suffered from allergic rhinitis and multiple arthralgia. [joint pains]... The all-round allergologic management, including dietary measures, avoidance of the relevant allergens and nasal as well as oral administration of disodium cromoglycate therapy, led to the almost complete disappearance of the urinary and other complaints...."
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    8. Enuresis in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Robson WL, Jackson HP, Blackhurst D, Leung AK, Southern Medical Journal 1997 May;90(5):503-5
      "We did a retrospective study of the prevalence of nocturnal and diurnal enuresis in patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)... Adjusting for differences in sex and current age, ADHD children at age 6 were 2.7 times more likely than controls to have nocturnal enuresis [bed wetting] and 4.5 times more likely to have diurnal enuresis. [daytime wetting]... Nocturnal and diurnal enuresis was found to be significantly more common in children with ADHD than in control subjects. Physicians who treat patients with ADHD should routinely inquire about the presence of enuresis."
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    9. Allergy testing, psychological assessment and dietary treatment of the hyperactive child syndrome. Salzman LK, Medical Journal of Australia 1976 Aug 14;2(7):248-51
      Thirty-one children with behavioural problems and learning difficulties were allergy tested ... 15 of these were given the Australian Version of the Feingold K.P. diet. Ninety-three per cent [93%] responded with improved behaviour in the areas of overactivity, distractability, impulsiveness and excitability. Sleep and enuresis problems were resolved partially or completely. This study demonstrates that the aforementioned elimination diet significantly affects behaviour.

      Note: Many people who don't "test positive" on such tests still respond well to the diet. Allergy testing may be useful if positive, but does not rule out response to diet management if negative.

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    10. The effect of deficiency of selected bioelements on hyperactivity in children with certain specified mental disorders, Starobrat-Hermelin B, Ann Acad Med Stetin 1998;44:297-314
      "... shortage [of magnesium, copper, zinc, calcium, iron] occurs more often among hyperactive children than among those being healthy, and deficiency of magnesium is the most frequent in this respect. Further, I have divided the group of 110 children with magnesium deficiency into two groups according to the other mental disorders that coexist with ADHD: 1) the group where hyperactivity coexists with disorders typical for developmental age such as enuresis, tics, separation anxiety, stuttering, selective mutism (63 children); 2) the group where hyperactivity coexists with disruptive behaviour disorders: conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder (47 children). ... The zinc content in hair was higher among children with ADHD and disruptive behaviour disorder. ... The analysis of influence exerted by magnesium supplementation on hyperactivity has been carried out in the group of total 75 children with ADHD jointly with magnesium deficiency ... The obtained results have clearly disclosed significant increase of magnesium, zinc, calcium content ... and ... decrease of hyperactivity in the group of children treated with magnesium. At the same time, however, among the children given standard treatment without magnesium, hyperactivity has intensified ... The findings herein presented indicate that it is necessary to take into consideration a possible bioelements deficiency among children with ADHD. Consequently, the accomplished study proves that there is a need of magnesium supplementation in ADHD children irrespectively of other mental disorders."
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    11. Ektopic ureter - a not considered cause of persisting enuresis in girls Zoller G, Zappel H, Ringert RH., Klinische Padiatrie 2001 Nov-Dec;213(6):314-6
      [This is not diet-related, but may be helpful if you have such a child, so I am putting it here anyhow.]

      "Ectopic ureter ... is a specific cause of incontinence in young girls. Although the symptom of continuous dribbling of urine is characteristic for this malformation, diagnosis is often delayed, as the possibility of ectopic ureters is not considered in treating girls with delayed toilet training.. . . Girls, who never have been dry and who loose urine all the time do have an ectopic ureter, unless evidence to the contrary has been put forward. Only considering the possibility of ectopic ureters will avoid unnecessary diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in these girls. "

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