violence, conduct disorder

The studies listed below are organized by date, with the most recent date first.  Some of the full texts will need a password because they are kept in a locked file to protect their copyright. 

If you are trying to find a particular author, see the Index below which lists all the primary authors alphabetically with their publication dates.

Author Index
  1. Gesch 2002
  2. Liu 2005
Gesch 2002: Study shows supplements improves behavior of prisoners
Gesch 2002: Study shows supplements improves behavior of prisoners

Influence of supplementary vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids on the antisocial behaviour of young adult prisoners C. Bernard Gesch, Sean M. Hammond, Sarah E. Hampson, Anita Eves and Martin J. Crowder, British Journal of Psychiatry (2002), 181, 22 – 28

” Experimental, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial of nutritional supplements on 231 young adult prisoners, comparing disciplinary offences before and during supplementation.Results: Compared with placebos, those receiving the active capsules committed an average of 26.3% … fewer offences. Compared to baseline, the effect on those taking active supplements for a minimum of 2 weeks was an average 35.1% … reduction of offences, whereas placebos remained within standard error.

Conclusions: Antisocial behaviour in prisons, including violence, are reduced by vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids with similar implications for those eating poor diets in the community.”


Liu 2005: Review of health risk factors for violence

Liu 2005: Review of health risk factors for violence

Biosocial bases of aggressive and violent behavior — implications for nursing studies , Liu J; Wuerker A, International Journal of Nursing Studies, 2005 Feb;42(2):229-41

” Although aggression and violence have been increasingly viewed as a major public health problem with a biological and health basis, it has been under-researched in the nursing and health context. This paper reviews early biological risk factors for violence. These factors include pregnancy/birth complications, fetal exposure to nicotine, alcohol, and drugs, low cholesterol, malnutrition, lead and manganese exposure,head injuries and brain dysfunction, low arousal, low serotonin, low cortisol, and high testosterone. A biopsychosocial violence mode is proposed. Finally, the paper argues that nursing is ideally placed to develop a new body of knowledge based on a biosocial perspective that can lead to more effective prevention programs for violence. ”
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The Diet Connection

Since the 1970s, very little has been done to address the need for effective rehabilitation in our prisons. We know there are treatments that work, but they are seldom made available.


Dr. Stephen Schoenthaler has published a series of studies conducted in juvenile prison systems and schools. In the prison studies, he found that improved diet plus the addition of vitamins improved behavior dramatically, reducing rule-breaking and violence 40% or more.

 Elevated levels of lead and other environmental toxins such as cadmium, arsenic, mercury, or copper have been linked to behavioral abnormalities. Nevertheless, most children are never tested for their “body burdens” of such chemicals.

Nor are children in trouble usually tested for zinc deficiency even though it is known to trigger behavioral problems, including aggression (Ward 1990, 1997). Ward’s research showed that children with a diagnosis of ADHD lost zinc faster than other people did when they ate foods containing food dye.

In the 1970s and 80s, Barbara Reed Stitt was having remarkable sucstitt-bookcess in helping parolees stay out of trouble. Most probation officers had success with only 15% of their parolees; Barbara’s success rate was an unheard-of 85%. What she did was convince them to improve their diet. You can read about her work in the book Food & Behavior, a Natural Connection.

Gesch (2002) showed that antisocial behavior in prisons, including violence, are dramatically reduced by ordinary supplements of vitamins, minerals, and essential fatty acids (but not by placebo).

Crime Times is a free publication that focuses on chemical, environmental, and nutritional factors that can result in violent behavior.

In summary, although not much research on violence and the Feingold diet has been specifically done, there has been enough work done to warrant a trial of this simple and safe diet, as well as testing for biochemical imbalances and toxic metals.