Autism, PDD, Aspergers

Autism used to occur in about 15 of every 10,000 births (1 in 667 children) but that number has risen until today more than 1 in every 68 children in general, and 1 in 42 boys is on the “autism spectrum.” 

Some claim that there are the same number ...

… of autistic children as there have always been but that we are just better at identifying the problem. If this were true, it would mean that there would be hundreds of thousands of autistic adults – “Rainmen” – in our midst. It would also imply that parents are not capable of noticing when their child, who had been developing normally, suddenly loses his ability to speak or to relate to them.

Conventional medicine has little to offer the families of autistic children. However, many parents, physicians, and other professionals have used a wide variety of non-drug methods to help the children, and there have been impressive results. But both mainstream medicine and the government agencies responsible for dealing with these issues remain unconvinced.

Pure Facts articles on autism

Over the years, our newsletter, Pure Facts, has reported on many of the approaches that have been used to help children with autism. In 2007, the April and June issues were devoted to summarizing some of the major efforts to help these children, as well as to explain the subject.

Symptoms of Autism

Autism is a spectrum disorder, so there is great variety in symptoms and severity, but the following characteristics are usually present:

  • Difficulty with communication
  • Difficulty relating to other people
  • Difficulty making eye contact
  • Repetitive behaviors
  • Resistance to change
  • Sensory problems: abnormal reactions to sound, light, touch, texture of food, etc.
  • Poor digestive system, constipation, diarrhea
Author Index


  1. Brown 2001
  2. Cade 2000
  3. Curtis 2008
  4. Dufault 2012
  5. Mutter 2005
  6. Mutter 2005a
  7. Patel 2007
  8. Vojdani 2003
The Studies

The studies listed below are organized by date, with the most recent date first.

If you are trying to find a particular author, see the Index below which lists all the primary authors alphabetically with their publication dates.

Brown 2001: Thimerosal & blood mercury levels

Theoretical estimation of blood mercury levels from Thimerosal injections using a one compartment biokinetic model. (An analysis to “bound” potential mercury tissue levels), Brown, DR. Prepared for the IOM meeting on Thimerosal and Vaccines , Boston, July 16, 2001

His Interpretations and Suggestions section contains what should be a strong indictment very carefully toned down:

“(3) Because the risk to children is believed to be as much as 10 times greater than risk to adults, the fact that estimates are slightly below the toxic levels would not be considered evidence of safety;

(4) . . . It is possible that single doses of Thimerosal would not be hazardous while repeated doses would bioaccumulate and be potentially toxic.”

Cade 2000: Gluten/casein-free diet study on children; 81% improved

Autism and Schizophrenia: Intestinal Disorders, Cade R et al. Nutritional Neuroscience, March 2000

“. . . A gluten-casein free diet was accompanied by improvement in 81% of autistic children within 3 months. Our data provide support for the proposal that schizophrenia and autism are due to absorption of exorphins formed in the intestine from digestion of gluten and casein.”

Curtis 2008: Review of articles

Nutritional and environmental approaches to preventing and treating autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a review. Curtis LT, Patel K. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2008 Jan-Feb;14(1):79-85.

” Review of journal articles found on the PubMed database and from information from several conference proceedings. . . .  Autistic spectrum disorders and ADHD are complicated conditions in which nutritional and environmental factors play major roles.  ”

Dufault 2012: Review of diet & toxins and autism

A macroepigenetic approach to identify factors responsible for the autism epidemic in the United States. Dufault R, Lukiw WJ, Crider R, Schnoll R, Wallinga D, Deth R. Clinical Epigenetics 2012 Apr 10;4(1):6.

” The number of children ages 6 to 21 in the United States receiving special education services under the autism disability category increased 91% between 2005 to 2010 while the number of children receiving special education services overall declined by 5%. The demand for special education services continues to rise in disability categories associated with pervasive developmental disorders. Neurodevelopment can be adversely impacted when gene expression is altered by dietary transcription factors, such as zinc insufficiency or deficiency, or by exposure to toxic substances found in our environment, such as mercury or organophosphate pesticides. . . . In the current review, we utilize a novel macroepigenetic approach to compare variations in diet and toxic substance exposure between these two geographical populations [Italy & U.S.] to determine the likely factors responsible for the autism epidemic in the United States.”

Quote from text:  “Children with autism may be Zn (zinc) deficient and often have MT (metallothionein) dysfunction. Because of their diminished capacity to excrete toxic heavy metals, the severity of their condition is associated with their toxic metal burden. This macroepigenetic model proposes that autism prevalence is related to the consumption of HFCS and the overall exposure to Hg (mercury) in the U.S.”

Mutter 2005: Letter re autism & mercury exposure

Mercury and autism: Accelerating Evidence?, Mutter J, Naumann J, Schneider R, Walach H, Haley B. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2005 Oct;26(5):439-46.

” Institute for Environmental Medicine and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Freiburg, Germany. . . Recently, it was found that autistic children had a higher mercury exposure during pregnancy due to maternal dental amalgam and thimerosal-containing immunoglobulin shots. It was hypothesized that children with autism have a decreased detoxification capacity due to genetic polymorphism. In vitro, mercury and thimerosal in levels found several days after vaccination inhibit methionine synthetase (MS) by 50%. . . . Repetitive doses of thimerosal leads to neurobehavioral deteriorations in autoimmune susceptible mice, increased oxidative stress and decreased intracellular levels of glutathione in vitro. Subsequently, autistic children have significantly decreased level of reduced glutathione. Promising treatments of autism involve detoxification of mercury, and supplementation of deficient metabolites. 

Mutter 2005: Dental amalgam, mercury as toxin

Amalgam risk assessment with coverage of references up to 2005 Mutter J, Naumann J, Walach H, Daschner F.,Gesundheitswesen. 2005 Mar;67(3):204-16.

“. . .Amalgam contributes substantially to human mercury load. Mercury accumulates in some organs, particularly in the brain, where it can bind to protein more tightly than other heavy metals (e. g. lead, cadmium). Therefore, the elimination half time is assumed to be up to 1 – 18 years in the brain and bones. Mercury is assumed to be one of the most toxic non-radioactive elements. . . . Review of recent literature suggests that mercury from dental amalgam may lead to nephrotoxicity, neurobehavioural changes, autoimmunity, oxidative stress, autism, skin and mucosa alterations or non-specific symptoms and complaints. The development of Alzheimer’s disease or multiple sclerosis has also been linked to low-dose mercury exposure. There may be individual genetical or acquired susceptibilities for negative effects from dental amalgam. Mercury levels in the blood, urine or other biomarkers do not reflect the mercury load in critical organs. Some studies regarding dental amalgam reveal substantial methodical flaws. Removal of dental amalgam leads to permanent improvement of various chronic complaints in a relevant number of patients in various trials. Summing up, available data suggests that dental amalgam is an unsuitable material for medical, occupational and ecological reasons. ”

Patel 2007: Case studies, children with autism treated by chelation, etc.

A comprehensive approach to treating autism and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a prepilot study. Patel K, Curtis LT. J Altern Complement Med. 2007 Dec;13(10):1091-7.

” . . .This study examined 10 children aged 4-10 years old who had been diagnosed with both autistic spectrum disorder and ADHD by outside physicians or psychologists. These 10 children presented consecutively in an environmental medicine clinic in Buffalo, New York. The children were given comprehensive nutritional/environmental/chelation treatment for 3 to 6 months in addition to their usual behavioral, educational, speech, and physical therapies. . . . All 10 children showed significant improvement in many areas of social interaction, concentration, writing, language, and behavior. Urinary lead burden dropped significantly in all 10 children. . .

Vojdani 2003: Genes, diet, & toxins cause autoimmunity in autism

Infections, toxic chemicals and dietary peptides binding to lymphocyte receptors and tissue enzymes are major instigators of autoimmunity in autism Vojdani A, Pangborn JB, Vojdani E, Cooper EL., International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology. 2003 Sep-Dec;16(3):189-99

” Similar to many complex autoimmune diseases, genetic and environmental factors including diet, infection and xenobiotics play a critical role in the development of autism. In this study, we postulated that infectious agent antigens such as streptokinase, dietary peptides (gliadin and casein) and ethyl mercury (xenobiotic) bind to different lymphocyte receptors and tissue enzyme (DPP IV or CD26). … A significant percentage of children with autism developed anti-SK, anti-gliadin and casein peptides and anti-ethyl mercury antibodies, concomitant with the appearance of anti-CD26 and anti-CD69 autoantibodies. … bacterial antigens (SK), dietary peptides (gliadin, casein) and Thimerosal (ethyl mercury) in individuals with pre-disposing HLA molecules, bind to CD26 or CD69 and induce antibodies against these molecules. In conclusion, this study is apparently the first to demonstrate that dietary peptides, bacterial toxins and xenobiotics bind to lymphocyte receptors and/or tissue enzymes, resulting in autoimmune reaction in children with autism. ”

The Diet Connection

The Autism Research Institute has reported that 56% of 899 families who had tried the Feingold diet found that it was helpful for their child. 

While autism is extremely complex, and there may be multiple causes, a diet that removes harmful additives is an important piece of the puzzle. Sometimes we hear back from families whose child had been diagnosed as autistic, only to have the diagnosis dropped once they went on the Feingold Program; but for most families, nutrition is only a part of the answer.


Following is a very short discussion of some of the research, and you can see more by visiting the links at the bottom of the page.

It has only been a relatively few years since the official cause of autism was the “refrigerator mother.” That was during the same period of time that asthma was considered the result of the “overbearing, dominating mother.” It does make one wonder about the poor child with both asthma and autism, doesn’t it?


Dr. Bernard Rimland was the first to reject the notion that autism was a psychiatric condition caused by a rejecting mother, and found that it is a biological disorder. He established a nonprofit organization as an international source of research and information for biomedical treatments in 1967. He passed away at the age of 78, November 21, 2006. “Dr. Rimland will go down in history as the person who ended the dark ages of autism and spearheaded the fight to bring hope and help to autistic children,” said Dr. Stephen M. Edelson, his successor at the helm of the Autism Research Institute. Read more about Dr. Rimland and the history of autism treatment.

In 1994, Dr. Rosemary Waring in England found that children with autism are deficient in an enzyme called phenol-sulphotransferase-P (PST). There were very low levels of PST in every child tested.

If you have a PST deficiency, it is harder to get rid of natural toxins (like salicylate) or phenolic additives (like food dyes) which require PST, and you would also have trouble coping with many of your own body chemicals (like neurotransmitters) which require PST to function correctly.

There could be many reasons why PST is deficient, but one that Waring suggested was sulfate starvation, since sulfate is the substrate from which PST is made. Apparently there is some difficulty creating sulfate from sulfur or sulfites available through foods. Some people report good results from epson salt (magnesium sulfate) baths. The baths provide sulfate absorbed through the skin, magnesium (which relaxes muscles) absorbed through the skin – and besides a warm bath is always soothing.

An interesting study (Harris 1998) also showed that salicylate suppresses the production of PST. Although the study authors consider this an advantage for control of cancer, it is obviously not an advantage if you don’t have much PST to begin with.

Dr. Cade (1999; 2000) reported in that abnormal peptides and antibodies to milk and wheat proteins were found in the urine of both autistic children and schizophrenic adults. See abstract. A diet free of both these proteins resulted in improvement of all the schizophrenics and 81% of the autistic children. It is unusual in that before implementing the diet for the adults, he had them go through a dialysis procedure which removed the damaging proteins all at once. Whether that is normally necessary for results is not known, but might depend on how long such proteins normally circulate in the blood before being excreted naturally. See abstract.

Dr. Shaw of the Great Plains Laboratory has found that children with autism often have abnormal fungal metabolites in their urine, as well as abnormally low cholesterol levels. He has developed a number of blood and urine tests specifically to help determine where the problems lie for the individual child.

Dr. Wakefield, a British gastroenterologist, found that the walls of the intestine of many autistic children are inflamed with the measles vaccine virus, causing what he named autistic enterocolitis. Because this involves the implied culpability of vaccine components, it has become extraordinarily controversial.

For those children to whom small sounds appear to be abnormally loud, causing them pain as well as difficulty in comprehending speech, auditory integration training holds out some hope. See the link to the Georgiana Institute below for more information.

Many children (and adults) with autism have symptoms overlapping ADHD. They are also prone to seizures and a variety of gastroenterological (GI) problems. The Feingold diet itself often helps some of these symptoms. Some doctors recommend starting the diet as a first intervention resulting in a “cleaner” diagnosis of remaining symptoms (those not related to diet) to address via other treatments. Parents have reported to us consistently that when the child is on the Feingold diet, other necessary treatments appear to work better. The reason for this is not yet known, but we are happy to be a piece of the puzzle.

The Diet Connection

Most of the families who use the Feingold Program do so to help a child who has been diagnosed with ADHD. Researchers have found that children with ADHD frequently have additional health and behavior problems such as the symptoms we list elsewhere.


When Dr. Feingold first began to use diet (then called the K-P diet) to treat children with ADHD (then called hyperkinesis), he said that 30% to 50% of them got better. Later, after he also eliminated the petrochemical preservatives BHA and BHT (TBHQ didn’t exist yet), he found that over 70% of the children got better. We still see that same – or better – result today.

About 50% of children (or adults) don’t need any other intervention. The others still need more help, which may be educational adjustments, tutoring, supplements, further restrictions due to identified allergies, behavior modification or counseling, or some sort of medication including stimulants. While some people do use both the diet and stimulant medication, in almost all cases they can use less medication than expected